Section I Use of English
Read the followingtext. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D onthe ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
As many people hitmiddle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity arenot what they used to be. We suddenly can’t remember___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance’s name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain___2___, we refer to these occurrences as “senior moments.” ___3___seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n)___4___ impact on our professional, social, and personal ___5___.
Neuroscientists,experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’s actually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brainneeds exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental___7___ can significantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking isessentially a ___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent,our ability to ___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence isinherited. ___11___, because these connections are made through effort andpractice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate___12___ mental effort.
Now, a new Web-basedcompany has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first “braintraining program” designed to actually help people improve and regaintheir mental ___14___.
The Web-based program___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. Theprogram keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailed feedback ___17___your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it ___18___modifies andenhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengths you are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you to increaseresistance and vary your muscle use.
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark youranswers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
In order to”change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency”George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront worksearch” scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV,register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligiblefor benefit and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. Whatcould be more reasonable?
More apparentreasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking forwork, not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people stay offbenefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.” Help? Really?On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to changelives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviouslyindulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed tofind work, and subsidises laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand,was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”—protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the mostdeserving claimants received their benefits.
Losing a job ishurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with asong in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from thegenerous state. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing andyou know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are nownot wanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are nownot wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purposeand structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and yourfamily and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what theywant and the answer is always: a job.
But in Osborneland,your first instinct is to fall into dependency —permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by astate only too ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years ofever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system neverhappened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insureyourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments ifthe disaster happens. Even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” — invented in 1996 — is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” whohad no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through makingnational insurance contributions. Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited”allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlementand no insurance, at ￡71.70 aweek, one of the least generous in the EU.
21. George Osborne’s scheme was intended to
[A]provide theunemployed with easier access to benefits.
[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.
[C]motivate theunemployed to report voluntarily.
[D]guaranteejobseekers’legitimate right to benefits.
22. The phrase, “to signon” (Line 3, Para. 2) most probably means
[A]to check on theavailability of jobs at the jobcentre.
[B]to accept thegovernment’s restrictions on the allowance.
[C]to register for anallowance from the government.
[D]to attend agovernmental job-training program.
23. What prompted thechancellor to develop his scheme?
[A]A desire to secure abetter life for all.
[B]An eagerness toprotect the unemployed.
[C]An urge to begenerous to the claimants.
[D]A passion to ensurefairness for taxpayers.
24. According to Paragraph 3,being unemployed makes one feel
25. To which of the followingwould the author most probably agree?
[A]The British welfaresystem indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
[D]Unemploymentbenefits should not be made conditional.
All around the world,lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few placeswhere clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
During the decadebefore the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grewtwice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money,tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduatesnever get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind ofnuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.
There are many reasonsfor this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just onepath for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree insome unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schoolsauthorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for thebar exam. This leaves today’s average law-schoolgraduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debtmeans that many cannot afford to go into government or non-profit work, andthat they have to work fearsomely hard.
Reforming the systemwould help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been aroundfor a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession havebeen too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to studylaw as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the barafter only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enoughtest for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to doso. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountainby a third.
The other reason whycosts are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of thebusiness. Except in the District of — Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a lawfirm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for changefrom within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insistthat keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure tomake money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact, allowingnon-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve servicesto customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employprofessional managers to focus on improving firms’efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australiaand Britain,have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.
26.a lot of students take uplaw as their profession due to
[A]the growing demandfrom clients.
[B]the increasingpressure of inflation.
[C]the prospect ofworking in big firms.
[D]the attraction offinancial rewards.
27.Which of the following addsto the costs of legal education in most American states?
[A]Higher tuition feesfor undergraduate studies.
[B]Admissions approvalfrom the bar association.
[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
[D]Receiving trainingby professional associations.
28.Hindrance to the reform ofthe legal system originates from
[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.
[B]the rigid bodiesgoverning the profession.
[C]the stem exam forwould-be lawyers.
29.The guild-like ownershipstructure is considered “restrictive”partly because it
[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.
[B]keeps lawyers fromholding law-firm shares.
[C]aggravates theethical situation in the trade.
[D]prevents lawyers fromgaining due profits.
30.In this text, the authormainly discusses
[A]flawed ownership ofAmerica’s law firms and its causes.
[B]the factors thathelp make a successful lawyer in America.
[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
[D]the role ofundergraduate studies in America’s legal education.
The US$3-millionFundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as AlexanderPolyakov said when he accepted this year’s award inMarch. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature articlein Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joinedthe Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, arefunded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs.These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and theywant to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded inscience.
What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientistsquoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, andthese upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels,The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, sayscientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-ledresearch. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They donot fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius.
The goals of theprize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism. Some want to shock, others todraw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careersin research.
As Nature has pointedout before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. TheBreakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes anunrepresentative view of what the life sciences include. But the NobelFoundation’s limit of three recipients per prize, eachof whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborativenature of modern research—as will be demonstrated bythe inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging thediscovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course, themselves set up bya very rich individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money.Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy.
As much as somescientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First,most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, itis surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather thango elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—butit is the prize-givers’ money to do with as theyplease. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace.
31. The Fundamental PhysicsPrize is seen as
[A]a symbol of theentrepreneurs’ wealth.
[B]a possiblereplacement of the Nobel Prizes.
[C]an example ofbankers’ investments.
[D]a handsome rewardfor researchers.
32. The critics think that thenew awards will most benefit
[B]the founders of thenew awards.
33. The discovery of the Higgsboson is a typical case which involves
[A]controversies overthe recipients’ status.
[B]the joint effort ofmodern researchers.
[C]legitimate concernsover the new prizes.
[D]the demonstration ofresearch findings.
34. According to Paragraph4,which of the following is true of the Nobels?
[A]Their endurance hasdone justice to them.
[B]Their legitimacy haslong been in dispute.
[C]They are the mostrepresentative honor.
[D]History has nevercast doubt on them.
35.The author believes that thenow awards are
[A]acceptable despitethe criticism.
[B]harmful to theculture of research.
[C]subject toundesirable changes.
[D]unworthy of publicattention.
”The Heart of theMatter,” the just-released report by the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS),deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciencesto the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, thereport’s failure to address the true nature of thecrisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good.
In 2010, leadingcongressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that itidentify actions that could be taken by “federal, state and localgovernments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors andothers” to “maintain national excellence in humanities and socialscientific scholarship and education.” In response, the American Academyformed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among thecommission’s 51 members are top-tier-universitypresidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well asprominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism.
The goals identified inthe report are generally admirable. Because representative governmentpresupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stressesthe study of history and government, particularly American history and Americangovernment; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourageinnovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment inresearch, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students’ ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21stcentury, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars tobring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The reportalso advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs andthe expansion of study abroad programs.
Unfortunately, despite2½ years in the making, “The Heart of theMatter” never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature ofliberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The commissionignores that for several decades America’s colleges and universities haveproduced graduates who don’t know the content andcharacter of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly,the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use ofthe humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing”progressive,” or left-liberal propaganda.
Today, professorsroutinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressivepublic policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative orclassical liberal ideas—such as free markets andself-reliance—as falling outside the boundaries ofroutine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.
The AAAS displays greatenthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform byobscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it toilluminate.
36. According to Paragraph 1,what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?
37. Influential figures in theCongress required that the AAAS report on how to
[A] retain people’s interest in liberal education
[B] define thegovernment’s role in education
[C] keep a leadingposition in liberal education
[D] safeguardindividuals’ rights to education
38. According to Paragraph 3,the report suggests
[A] an exclusive studyof American history
[B] a greater emphasison theoretical subjects
[C] the application ofemerging technologies
[D] funding for thestudy of foreign languages
39. The author implies inParagraph 5 that professors are
[A] supportive of freemarkets
[B] cautious aboutintellectual investigation
[C] conservative aboutpublic policy
[D] biased againstclassical liberal ideas
40. Which of the followingwould be the best title for the text?
[A] Ways to Grasp”The Heart of the Matter”
[B] Illiberal Educationand “The Heart of the Matter”
[C] The AAAS’s Contribution to Liberal Education
[D] Progressive Policyvs. Liberal Education
The following paragraphs aregiven in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganizethese paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and fillingthem into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placedMark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET (10 points)
[A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, theParthenon in Athens, Greece, the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megalithsof Stonehenge in southern England.But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Most archaeological sites have beenlocated by means of careful searching, while many others have been discoveredby accident. Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterflyhunter who literally fell into its deep valley in 1911. Thousands of Aztecartifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.
[B]In another case, American archaeologists Rene Million andGeorge Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the Valleyof Mexico near what is now Mexico City. At its peakaround AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world.The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but alsohundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.
[C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are lookingfor when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, theysurvey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain todetermine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test sampleshave also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that containarchaeological sites.
[D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entirelandscapes. In one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya cityof Copan, Honduras, have located hundreds ofsmall rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs andby making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how thedistribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramaticallybetween AD 500 and 850, when Copancollapsed.
[E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily onsystematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools andtechniques. Airborne technologies, such as different types of radar andphotographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologiststo learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveyslocate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancientbuildings or fields.
[F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered byarchaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years.British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaohTutankhamun existed from information found in other sites. Carter siftedthrough rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before he located thetomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evan combedantique dealers’ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for tiny engraved sealsattributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the1400s to 1200s BC. Evans’s interpretations of theseengravings eventually led him to find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knossós) on the island of Crete, in 1900.
[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the placeswhere digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking,looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They ofteninclude a certain amount of digging to test for buried materials at selectedpoints across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains byusing such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metaldetectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and thelandscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools inplanning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the resultsof archaeological research.
41. → A →42. → E →43. → 44. →45.
C → A → F → E → G → D → B
Read the following textcarefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Yourtranslation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Music means differentthings to different people and sometimes even different things to the sameperson at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical,sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have somethingto do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the meansof expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it isprecisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physicalmeans that is the strength of music. (46)It is also the reason why when wetry to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions toit, and not grasp music itself.
Beethoven’s importance in music has been principally defined by therevolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hithertoprevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his lateworks a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt andseemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, hedid not feel restrained by the weight of convention. (47)By all accounts hewas a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage anessential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of hisworks.
This courageousattitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, forexample in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an intense crescendo and thenabruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used bycomposers before him.
Beethoven was a deeplypolitical man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in dailypolitics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the largerquestions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especially significantwas his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights andresponsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and ofpersonal expression.
Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperativeof human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoringthe disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, animprovement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is notby chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the EroicaSymphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. (50)Onecould interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering isinevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Write a letter of about 100 words to the president ofyour university, suggesting how to improve students’physical condition.
You should include the details you think necessary.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use”Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Dear Mr. President,
I am a student from the department of chemistry. I find it is necessary to improve students’ physical conditions and I would like to propose some suggestions it in this letter.
Following are my suggestions on it. Firstly, the awareness of this issue should be enhanced, which is of utmost importance. Nowadays, intellectual abilities are greatly emphasized while the physical training has been more or less neglected. Secondly, I suggest that some specific measures should be taken, such as doing morning exercise every day and encouraging students to participate in the sports events on the campus, to improve the situation. Last and not least, an optimistic attitude should be held towards it. Confidence will help us deal with this situation.
I hope you will find these suggestions useful. I have good reasons to expect a bright future if we address this issue with due emphasis.
52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the followingdrawing. In your essay, you should 1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) interpret its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(20 points)
The pictures above vividly portray the scenes of a girl being together with her mother. The picture on the left side describes the situation thirty years ago when the girl was little and the mother was young. The one on the right side depicts that now the girl has grown up, holding her mother arm in arm. At the bottom of the picture, a line of words read “holding each other in your life”.
The picture above reveals to us such a phenomenon: more and more young people realize how much their parents have devoted to them and try to return the parental love. This phenomenon occurs at least for the following reasons. Firstly, the harmonious atmosphere of the society has left its imprint on one’s family, which is the cell of the society. Children’s consideration of the aged parents is a good example. Secondly, family means a lot for everyone. Therefore, parents tend to think of their children when they make a plan for their life, and vice versa. Thirdly, the traditional Chinese culture has always put great emphasis on family, which partially explains one’s great sense of responsibility to their family members.
In sum, a healthy relationship between children and parents should be maintained. In my opinion, people should take the welfare of family as a whole into consideration as the pictures show. Otherwise, a harmonious relationship among family members cannot be kept and a happy life cannot be guaranteed.