HTTPD启动绑定端口失败

问题描述:

在apache中绑定非http标准端口时,一直出现如下的错误提示:

[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/httpd start
Starting httpd: (13)Permission denied: make_sock: could not bind to address 0.0.0.0:8087
no listening sockets available, shutting down
Unable to open logs

原因分析:

该问题是由SELinux 引起的

解决方案:

 

1、快速解决,修改selinux级别(不推荐)

vi /etc/sysconfig/selinux 
SELINUX=enforcing =>SELINUX=disabled 
reboot

 

2、从根本上解决(推荐)

根据自己的需求在selinux中添加需要指定的端口
前提需要先安装semanage(Centos6.0默认没有安装该应用)
a)安装方式如下:

[root@localhost /]# yum provides /usr/sbin/semanage
[root@localhost /]# yum whatprovides /usr/sbin/semanage
[root@localhost /]# yum -y install policycoreutils-python
[root@localhost /]# semanage

b)使用semanage添加apache侦听的端口

查看现在的支持http的端口有哪些

[root@localhost /]# semanage port -l|grep http 
为http服务添加新的端81 

[root@localhost /]# semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 81 
查看添加的结果 

[root@localhost /]# semanage port -l|grep http

 

2014考研政治试题及参考答案

一、单项选择题。1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。
1. 爱迪生在发明电灯之前做了两千多次实验,有个年轻的记者曾经问他为什么遭遇这么多次失败。爱迪生回答:“我一次都没有失败。我发明了电灯。这只是一段经历了两千步的历程。”爱迪生之所以说“我一次都没有失败”,是因为他把每一次实验都看作(??)
A. 认识中所获得的相对真理
B. 整个实践过程中的一部分
C. 对事物规律的正确反映
D. 实践中可以忽略不计的偶然挫折
解析:根据题干中的“两千步的历程”,可知正确答案为B。
2. 俄国早期马克思主义理论家普列汉诺夫说,绝不会有人去组织一个”月食党”以促进或阻止月食的到来,但要进行社会革命就必须组织革命党,这是因为社会规律与自然规律有所不同,它是()
A. 不具有重复性的客观规律
B. 由多数人的意志决定的
C. 通过人的有意识的活动实现的
D. 比自然规律更易于认识的规律
解析:社会规律与自然规律的区别就是通过人的有意识的活动实现。

3. 社会生产是连续不断进行的,这种连续不断重复的生产就是再生产。每次经济危机发生期间,总有许多企业或因产品积压、或因订单缺乏等致使其无法继续进行再生产而被迫倒闭。那些因产品积压而倒闭的企业主要是由于无法实现其生产过程中的()
A. 劳动补偿
B. 价值补偿
C. 实物补偿
D. 增殖补偿
解析:再生产要顺利实现,需要顺利进行实物补偿和价值补偿,根据题干中的“产品积压”可排除实物补偿。
4. 与第二次世界大战前的资本主义相比,当代资本主义在许多方面已经并正在发生着深刻的变化。正确分析这些新变化发生的原因,有利于我们科学而全面地认识当代资本主义社会。导致当代资本主义新变化发生的根本推动力量是()
A. 改良主义政党对资本主义制度的改革
B. 工人阶级争取自身权利的斗争
C. 科学技术革命和生产力的发展
D. 社会主义制度的优越性对资本主义的影响
解析:只要想到基本矛盾推动社会的发展,就可以联想到生产力,而科学技术也属于生产力的范畴。邓小平说过,科学技术是第一生产力。
5. 1992年,党的十四大提出了我国经济体制改革的目标是建立社会主义市场经济体制。经过十四大到十八届三中全会20多年的实践,党对政府和市场的关系有了新的科学定位,提出使市场在资源配置中起( )
A. 辅助性作用
B. 决定性作用
C. 基础性作用
D. 补充性作用
解析:十八届三中全会的新提法,严真老师第五套押题卷特别提醒的内容。
6. 改革开放以来,人民代表大会制度建设和人民代表大会的工作得到不断推进。全国和地方各级人民代表大会的代表()
A. 实行差额选举
B. 按党派分配名额
C. 按单位分配名额
D. 实行等额选举
解析:严真老师所著的超级红宝书上有相应的表述。
7. 劳动、资本、技术、管理等生产要素是社会生产不可或缺的因素。在我国社会主义初级阶段,实行按生产要素分配的必要性和根据是()
A. 生产要素可以转化为生产力
B. 我国社会存在着生产要素的多种所有制
C. 按生产要素分配是按劳分的补充
D. 生产要素是价值的源泉
解析:严真老师所著的超级红宝书上有相应的表述。
8. 文化强则中国强。建设社会主义文化强国是实现中华民族伟大复兴的必然要求,其关键是( )
A. 增强全民族文化创造活力
B. 发展新型文化业态
C. 提高全民族思想道德素质和科学文化素质
D. 提升国家文化软实力
解析:今年红宝书新增的内容,在课程中特别提醒过
9. 1915年9月,陈独秀在上海创办《青年杂志》。他在该刊发刊词中宣称,”盖改造青年之思想,辅导青年之修养,为本志之天职。批评时政,非其旨也。”此时陈独秀把主要注意力倾注于思想变革的原因是()
A. 他认为批评时政不利于改造青年思想
B. 他对资本阶级民主主义产生了怀疑
C. 他对政治问题不感兴趣
D. 他认定改造国民性是政治变革的前提
解析:考察的是五四运动前新文化运行的特点。
10. 1924年1月,中国国民党第一次全国代表大会在广州召开,大会通过的宣言对三民主义作出了新的解释。新三民主义成为第一次国共合作的政治基础,究其原因,是由于新三民主义的政纲()
A. 同中国共产党在民主革命阶段的纲领基本一致
B. 把斗争的矛头直接指向北洋军阀
C. 体现了联俄、联共、扶助农工三大革命政策
D. 把民主主义概括为”平均地权”
解析:历年真题中考察过,在NBF考研包过班的课程中也讲解过。
11. 1930年1月,毛泽东在《星星之火,可以燎原》一文中写道:”我所说的中国革命高潮快要到来,决不是如有些人所谓‘有到来之可能’那样完全没有行动意义的、可望而不可即的一种空的东西。它是站在海岸遥望海中已经看得见桅杆尖头了的一只航船,它是立于高山之巅远看东方已见光芒四射喷薄欲出的一轮朝日,它是躁动于母腹中的快要成熟了的一个婴儿。”这段话是针对当时党内和红军中存在的( )
A. “在全国范围内先争取群众后建立政权”的理论
B. “御敌于国门之外”的主张
C. “红旗到底打得多久”的疑问
D. “一省或数省的首先胜利”的设想
解析:如果不知道“红旗到底能打多久”是林彪说的话,则根据《星星之火,可以燎原》的名字可以推知其反面含义。
12.”房子是应该经常打扫的,不打扫就会积满了灰尘,脸是应该经常洗的,不洗也就会灰尘满面。我们同志的思想、我们党的工作,也会沾染灰尘的,也应该打扫和洗涤。”这段话形象地反映了中国共产党在长期革命实践中历形成的( )
A. 密切联系群众的优良作风
B. 艰苦奋斗的优良作风
C. 理论联系实际的优良作风
D. 批评与自我批评的优良作风
解析:根据“逻辑为根”的解题方法,易知答案为D.
13. 中国特色社会主义法治理念包含”依法治国、执法为民、公平正义、服务大局、党的领导”五个方面的基本内涵,它们是相辅相成、不可分割的有机整体,构成了社会主义法治理念的完整理论体系。其中,公平正义是()
A. 社会主义法治的价值追求
B. 社会主义法治的本质要求
C. 社会主义法治的核心内容
D. 社会主义法治的重要使命
解析:NBF考研包过班课程有这道练习题。
14. 近年来,从”彭宇案”掀起的轩然大波,到”扶老被诬伤老,好人败诉赔钱”等事件的一再发生,使历来推崇”助人为乐”的国人遭遇考验。2013年8月1日,《深圳特区救助人权益保护规定》的正式实施,填补了国内公民救助行为立法的空白。为此,有媒体撰文《”好人法”释放道德正能量》,认为该规定无疑会释放出挺好人、做好人的正能量,对社会风气的净化不无益处。法律之所以能释放道德正能量,是因为()
A. 法律是道德的归宿
B. 法律是道德的基础
C. 活动是道德的前提
D. 法律是道德的支撑
解析:本题考察的是道德与法律的关系,根据法的不可违抗性特征,易知正确答案为D。
15. 党群关系,关乎党和国家的存亡大计。为了实现党的十八大确定的奋斗目标,中共中央部署并在全党开展了党的群众路线教育实践活动。这次活动的主要内容是()
A. 建设学习型党组识
B. 保持共产党员先进性
C. 讲学习、讲政治、讲正气
D. 为民务实清廉
解析:根据“逻辑为根”的解题方法,题干中的“群众”对选项中的“民”。
16. 2013年6月,中国国家主席习近平与美国总统奥巴马在美国加州安纳伯格庄园会晤时,将中美新型大国关系的内涵概括为()
A. 共同发展、合作共赢、友好伙伴、相互尊重
B. 加强对话、增加互信、发展合作、管控分歧
C. 不冲突、不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢
D. 相互尊重、平等互利、密切协作、相互支持
解析:本题考察的是大国关系,严真老师的五套题中有详细的表述。

二、多项选择题:17~33题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分。
17. 海的”贯通东流”水系的形成年代。如果说上游的沉积物从青藏高原、四川盆地顺延而下能到达下游,这就表是长江贯通了,这就是物源示踪。我国科学家采用这一方法以,研究长江中下游盆地沉积物的来源,从而判别长江上游的物质何时到达下游,间接指示了长江贯通东流的时限。他们经过10多年的研究,提出长江贯通东流的时间距今约2300多万年。这一研究成果从一个侧面显示出()
A. 时间和空间是有限的,物质运动是永恒的
B. 时间和空间的通过物质运动的变化表现出来的
C. 时间和空间是指标示物质运动的观念形式
D. 时间和空间是物质运动的存在形式
解析:根据排除法,易知A中的“有限”和C中的“观念”错误。
18. 作家史铁生在《奶奶的星星》中讲道,奶奶告诉他的故事与通常的说法不同:一般人说,地上死一个人,天上就熄灭了一颗星星;而奶奶说,地上死一个人,天上又多了一个星星,人死了就会升到天空,变成星星给走夜道的人照个亮了。于是他”慢慢相信,每一个活过的人,都能给后人的路途上添些光亮,也许是一颗巨星,也许是一把火炬,也许只是一支含泪的烛光……”这对我们理解个人在社会历史的作用的启示有( )
A. 历史是无数个人相互作用的合力的结果
B. 杰出个人决定历史发展的走向
C. 人人都是历史的创造者
D. 每个人对社会发展都有或大或小的作用
解析:根据排除法,易知BC是明显错误的选项。
19. 1918年,马寅初在一次演讲时,有一位老农问他:”马教授,请问什么是经济学?”马寅初笑着说:”我给这位朋友讲个故事吧:有个赶考的书生到旅店投宿,拿出十两银子,挑了该旅店标价十两银子的最好房间,店主立刻用它到隔壁的米店付了欠单,米店老板转身去屠夫处还了肉钱,屠夫马上去付清了赊欠的饲料款,饲料商赶紧到旅店还了房钱。就这样,十两银子又到了店主的手里。这时书生来说,房间不合适,要回银子就走了。你看,店主一文钱也没赚到,大家却把债务都还清了,所以,钱的流通越快越好,这就是经济学。”在这个故事中,货币所发挥的职能有( )
A. 支付手段
B. 流通手段
C. 价值尺度
D. 贮藏手段
解析:根据排除法,题干中的钱是在不停的流通,易知D错误。
20. 第二次世界大战结束以来,随着国家垄断资本主义的形成和发展,资产阶级国家对经济进行的干预明显加强,从而使得资本主义社会的经济调节机制发生了显著变化。与这种变化相适应,经济危机形态也发生了很大变化。其主要表现是()
A. 经济危机更多地表现为金融危机的频繁发生
B. 经济危机通常由国家间的贸易失衡直接引发
C. 经济危机各阶段的交替过程已不十分明显
D. 经济危机的破坏作用只局限于发达资本主义国家
解析:严真老师所著的超级红宝书有相应的内容。
21. 1926~1927年初,邓小平在莫斯科中山大学留学一年。此时正值列宁的新经济政策在莫斯科和整个苏联燎原般发展,国家经济全面开花,市场上商品丰富、品类繁多,商店、饭馆、咖啡馆随处可见。邓小平到中山大学第一天就收到了一大堆日用品,一日三餐也非常丰富。在此期间,邓小平还认真阅读和摘抄了苏联领导人关于新经济政策的许多论述。这一段经历对邓小平后来思考建设”有中国特色的社会主义”具有一定的启示。邓小平与列宁在如何建设社会主义的探索中有许多相通之处,主要有()
A. 优先发展重工业,快速实现从农业国到工业国的转变
B. 把大力发展生产力、提高劳动生产率放在首要地位
C. 学习和利用资本主义的文明成果
D. 在多种经济成分并存在条件下,利用商品、货币和市场发展经济
解析:根据排除法,可知A为毛泽东主张的。
22. 坚持和完善社会主义初级阶段基本经济制度,必须毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,必须毫不动摇鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展。这是因为,公有制经济和非公有制经济都是我国()
A. 经济社会发展的重要基础
B. 社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分
C. 社会主义经济的重要组成部分
D. 社会主义经济制度的基础
解析:党的十八届三中全会的最新提法,严真老师最后补充内容特别强调。
23. 2013年9月7日,国家主席习近平在哈萨克斯坦纳扎尔耶夫大学发表演讲并回答学生提问时说,”我们既要绿水青山,也要金山银山。宁要绿水青山,不要金山银山,而且绿水青山就是金山银山。”这段话生动地反映了生态文明建设与经济建设之间的关系,即( )
A. 生态环境是经济发展的重要基础
B. 生态文明建设应与经济建设协同发展
C. 生态文明建设可以取代经济建设
D. 生态优势可以转化为经济优势
解析:根据排除法,可知C是错误的,因为五位一体,而非取代。
24. 2013年6月6日,《财富》全球论坛首次在中国西部内陆城市成都举行。这次论坛以”中国的新未来”为主题,集中讨论了中国西部发展对中国未来发展的重要意义。”优先推进西部大开发”是党的十八大提出的重大战略部署,把西部大开发放在区域发展总体战略的优先位置,是因为西部发展有利于()
A. 扩大国有资本在西部地区社会总资产中的比重
B. 增强西部地区的经济实力
C. 缩小区域发展差距
D. 形成优势互补、良性互动、协调有序的区域发展格局
解析:根据排除法,无明显错误的选项,因此全部入选。
25. 《中共中央关于全国深化改革若干重大问题的决定》明确指出:限期实行行业协会商会与行政机关真正脱钩,重点培育和优先发展行业协会商会累,科技类公益类慈善类,城乡社区服务类社会组织,发挥各类社会组织的积极作用,可以
A. 增强公民对社会的认同感
B. 降低政府治理成本
C. 扩大政府管理权限
D. 提高社会治理水平
解析:根据排除法,可知C是错误的。
26. 近年来,我国企业”走出去”的步伐明显加快。非金融类对外直接投资从2007年的248亿美元上升到2012年的773亿美元,年均增长25. 5%,跻身对外投资大国行列。我国企业”走出去”战略的重要意义是( )
A. 充分利用国外资源
B. 增强我国企业国际化经营能力
C. 培育我国具有世界水平的跨国公司
D. 拓展我国经济发展空间
解析:根据排除法,无明显错误的选项,因此全部入选。
27. 1912年3月中华民国临时参议既颁布的《中华民间临时约法》是中国历史上第一部具有资产阶级共和国宪法性质的法典。毛泽东曾称赞它”带有革命性、民主性”。其”革命性、民主性”主要体现在( )
A. 它不承认清政府与列强签订的一切不平等条约
B. 它规定中华民国国民一律平等
C. 它规定中华民国之主权属于国民全体
D. 它以根本大法的形式废除了封建君主专制制度
解析:根据排除法,可知A是错误的,因为资产阶级的软弱性。
28. 钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿是中国领土不可分割的一部分。中国最早发现、命名、利用和管辖钓鱼岛。1895年,请朝在甲午战争中战败,被迫与日本签署不平等的《马关条约》,割让”台湾全岛及所有附属各岛屿”。钓鱼岛等作为台湾”附属岛屿”一并被割让给日本。1941年12月,中国政府正式对日宣战,宣布废除中日之间的一切条约。日本投降后,依据有关国际文件规定,钓鱼岛作为台湾的附属岛屿应与台湾一并归还中国。这些国际文件是()
A. 《日本投降书》
B. 《波茨坦公告》
C. 《开罗宣言》
D. 《德黑兰宣言》
解析:根据历史事实,可知正确答案为ABC。
29. 抗日战争结束后,中国共产党为避免内战,实现和平建国,采取的主要措施有( )
A. 参加政协会议并维护政协协议
B. 赴重庆与国民党当局进行谈判
C. 在国统区开辟第二条战线
D. 在解放区开展土地改革运动
解析:根据超级红宝书上的内容,可知正确答案为AB。
30. 柏拉图说:”法律有一部分是为有美德的人制定的,如果他们愿意和平善良地生活,那么法律可以教会他们在与他人的交往中所要遵循的准则;法律也有一部分是为那些不接受教诲的人制定的,这些人顽固不化,没有任何办法能使他们摆脱罪恶。”这段话所凸显的法律的规范作用是( )
A. 教育作用
B. 保障作用
C. 预测作用
D. 强制作用
解析:根据逻辑为根,易知正确答案为AD。
31. 爱国主义优良传统源远流长,内涵数极为丰富。下列诗句中反映爱国主义优良传统的有( )
A. 位卑未敢忘忧国,事定犹须持阖棺
B. 四万万人齐下泪,天涯何处是神州
C. 寄意寒星荃不察,我以我血荐轩辕
D. 苟利国家生死以,岂因祸福避趋之
解析:根据排除法,无明显错误的选项,因此全部入选。
32. 2013年9月29日,中国(上海)自由贸易试验区正式启动运作,36家中外企业和金融机构颁布证照,首批入驻试验区,建设该试验区的主要任务是( )
A. 促进转变经济增长方式和优化经济结构
B. 推动加快转变政府职能和行政体制改革
C. 为全面深化改革和扩大开放探索新途径、积累新经验
D. 推动构建更加公平合理的市场经济体制
解析:根据时政内容可知正确答案为ABC。
33. 应中国总理李克强的邀请,俄罗斯总理梅德韦杰夫、印度总理辛格和蒙古国总理阿勒坦呼亚格于2013年10月22日开始分别对中国进行正式访问。来自中国三个陆上邻国的领导人,在同一天开启中国之行,这样密集的双边访问在中国外交史上实属罕见。这一外交动向()
A. 体现了中国经济发展的吸引力
B. 深化了中国与俄印蒙三国间的盟友关系
C. 反映了中国周边外交行动的延续和加速
D. 顺应了互利共赢的时代潮流
解析:根据排除法,易知B是错误的,因为中国是真正不结盟。

三、分析题:34~38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材科回答问题。将答案写在答题卡指定位置的边框区域内。
34. 结合材料回答问题:

巧用大循环,处理不再难
山东某地采用循环经济的理念,将秸秆”吃干榨尽”,对秸秆利用进行了有益探索。
一、秸秆种蘑菇
该地小麦种植面积为60万亩,按亩产500公斤秸秆计算,每年产生30万吨秸秆。虽然粉碎还田、压块做燃料、青储养殖等消化了大量秸秆,但一些农户为图方便,仍然偷偷焚烧秸秆,当地禁烧压力很大。
2009年,该地通过招商引资引进了一家蘑菇种植企业,该企业以小麦秸秆加鸡粪为原料培育双孢菇,从当地收到小麦秸秆不够用,还在周边100公里范围的县市收集,鸡粪则由当地一家大型养鸡场提供。自蘑菇厂建起来后,蘑菇厂对秸秆的大量需要,让原本难以处理而成为”包袱”的秸秆摇身一变,不仅成了香饽饽,而且还成为农民增收的渠道。
二、延长产业链
然而,蘑菇厂每年产生的6万吨菌渣,四处堆积,臭气难闻,也引来周边群众的投诉,由此,该蘑菇厂开始寻找下游菌渣处理企业,开展产业链条的招商引资。
山东某生物科技有限公司得知消息后主动前来,并把厂于建在该蘑菇厂旁边,他们将买来的菌渣加上猪粪,经过发酵,制成了很好的有机复合肥。这不仅解决了菌渣问题,而且也附带解决了让周边养猪户头痛的猪粪问题,该公司将生产出来的有机复合肥直接卖给周边的有机蔬菜种植基地,种植户以及果农等,由于减少了销售中间环节,价格合理。而很受欢迎。该公司也因之而获利颇丰。
三、”链接”到山林
秸秆经过种植蘑菇,变成了有机复合肥,最后拿到市场上销售,算是完成了一个标准的循环利用过程,然后,如果将有机复合肥集中用于生态修复工程。再次推动一个新的生态产业发展,岂不是更好?
该地又动起脑筋,将秸秆利用产业与退耕还林工程对接,该地的山区丘陵面积占全市总面积的2/3,其中林荒山地有6万多亩,这些山地土壤贫瘠。含沙量大,农作物产量低,经济效益差。
在深入调研的基础上,该地从2011年开始,由市财政投入数亿元,实施为期5年的”自主退耕还林生态富民”工程,打算将这些山地改造成高产的大枣、大樱桃等经济果林,大力推进农林业转型。
而要发展高产高效的有机果业,所面临的突出问题是有机肥从何而来?这时,秸秆等有机肥料又成了人们惦记的宝贝。为了种植出优质林果,当地农民在山地种植果林时,都开始垫秸秆、放菌渣有机复合肥等。大片经济果林的种植,不仅大大地改善了当地生态环境,从而实现了秸秆利用的大循环,而且也大大地提高了农民收入。

  摘编自《人民日报》(2013年6月22日)

(1)从唯物辩证法的角度分析”巧用大循环,处理不再难”中”巧”在何处?(6分)
(2)当你在生活中遇到难题和矛盾时,上述事例对你有何启示?(4分)
参考答案(参见严真老师押题第一套):
(1)辩证法认为世界是普遍联系的。整个世界是相互联系的统一整体。任何事物都不能孤立存在,都同其他事物处于一定的相互联系之中。材料中的例子充分认识到了事物之间的联系,巧妙地构成循环,这就是”巧用大循环,处理不再难”中的”巧”。
(2)辩证地思考问题,就是用联系的、发展的、全面的观点,特别是用对立统一的观点看问题,从对立中把握同一,从同一中把握对立。我们对任何问题都要加以辩证地思考,多角度地或从相反方向去思考和解决问题。

 

 35. 结合材料回答问题:
材料1
1978年我国作出改革开放的战略决策时,美国《时代》杂志曾质疑说:”他们的目标几乎不可能按期实现,甚至不可能实现。”经过三十多年的改革开放,我国国内生产总值,外贸进出口总额均已达到世界第二位,经济总量占世界经济的份额提升到10%左右,对世界经济增长的贡献率年平均超过20%。据世界银行统计,我国已进入中高收入国家行列。
在物质文化生活得到提高之后,人民群众对未来期待更高,过去施工建厂,首先考虎的是经济利益,今天引进项目,担心的却是环境污染;过去期盼吃饱穿暖,今天却追求吃的健康、安全检查过去梦想有车有房,现在则忧虑PM2. 5排放,城乡居民收入整体都有提高,但城乡区域发展差距和居民收入分配差距依然较大,近10年来中国基尼系数始终处于0. 4以上,超出国际公认”警戒线”……这个经济飞速发展、财富不断积累的世界第二大经济体,在创造着”中国式奇迹”的同时,仍有一些”中国式难题”丞待破解。
“改革开放是我们党的历史上一次伟大觉醒,正是这个伟大觉醒孕育了新时期从理论到实践的伟大创造。”习近平在党的十八大之后首次到地方调研就选择了广东,并向深圳莲花山顶的邓小平钢像敬献了花篮。习近平表示,之所以到广东来,就是要到在我国改革开放中得风气之先的地方,现场回顾我国改革开放的历史进程,将改革开放继续推向前行。我们来瞻爷邓小平钢像。就是要表明我们将坚定不移推进改革开放,奋力推进改革开放和现代化建设取得新进展、实现新突破、迈上新台阶。

  摘编自《人民日报》(2013年3月22日)、新华网(2012年12月11日)等

材料2
1992年,邓小平同志在南方谈话中说:”不坚持社会主义,不改革开放,不发展经济,不改善人民生活,只能是死路一条。”回过头来看,我们对邓小平同志这番话就有更深的理解了。所以,我们讲,只有社会主义才能救中国,只有改革开放才能发展中国、发展社会主义、发展马克思主义。
正是从历史经验和现实需要的高度,党的十八大以来,中央反复强调,改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键一招,也是决定实现”两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的关键一招,实践发展永无止境,解放思想永无止境,改革开放也永无止境,停顿和倒退没有出路,改革开放只有进行时、没有完成时。

  摘自习近平讲话

(1)如何看待改革开放进程中的”中国式奇迹”与”中国式难题”?(4分)
(2)运用社会基本矛盾原理分析为什么”改革开放只有进行时、没有完成时”?(6分)
参考答案(参见严真老师押题第一套与补充):
(1)改革开放30多年来,我国的面貌发生了历史性变化。事实证明:改革开放是坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的必由之路,只有改革开放才能发展中国、发展社会主义、发展马克思主义,改革是大势所趋、人心所向。虽然在改革过程中遇到了一些问题,但我们必须坚定不移走中国特色社会主义道路,不断增强中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信。实践发展永无止境,改革开放永无止境,我们必须不断深化改革,为全面建成小康社会、实现社会主义现代化和中华民族的伟大复兴而不断努力。
(2)矛盾是普遍存在的。社会主义社会充满着矛盾,正是这些矛盾推动着社会主义社会不断向前发展。在社会主义社会中,基本的矛盾仍然是生产关系和生产力之间的矛盾、上层建筑和经济基础之间的矛盾。社会主义社会基本矛盾是非对抗性的,可以通过社会主义制度本身的自我调整和自我完善不断地得到解决。这实际上为社会主义制度的完善和发展奠定了理论基石。邓小平进一步把社会主义社会的基本矛盾、主要矛盾和根本任务统一起来,并提出解决社会主义初级阶段主要矛盾的途径是改革。而改革正是对社会主义制度的自我完善和发展,”改革开放只有进行时、没有完成时”。

 

  36. 结合材料回答问题:
材料1
1980年8月,邓小平会见意大利记者奥琳娜、法拉奇。法拉奇问:”天安门上的毛主席像,是否要永远保留下去?”邓小平回答说:”永远要保留下去。过去毛主席像挂得太多,到处都挂,并不是一种严肃的事情,也并不能表明对毛主席的尊重。”邓小平又说:”毛主席一生中大部分时间是做了非常好的事情的,他多次从危机中把党和国家挽救过来,没有毛主席,至少我们中国人民还要在黑暗中摸索更长的时间。毛主席最伟大的功绩是把马列主义的原理同中国革命的实际结合起来,指出了中国夺取革命胜利的道路、应该说,在六十年代以前或五十年代后期以前,他的许多思想给我们带来了胜利,他提出的一些根本的原理是非常正确的。”

  摘自《邓小平文选》第2卷

材料2
2013年1月5日,习近平在新进中央委员会的委员、候补委员学习贯彻党的十八大精神研讨班开班式上发表重要讲话。他强调指出,我们党领导人民进行社会主义建设,有改革开放前和改革开放后两个时期,这是两个相互联系又有重大区别的时期,虽然这两个历史时期在进行社会主义建设的思想指导、方针政策、实际工作上有很大差别,但两者决不是彼此割裂的,更不是根本对立的,不能用改革开放后的历史时期否定改革开放前的历史时期,也不能用改革开放前的历史时期否定改革开放后的历史时期。要坚持实事求是的思想路线,分清主流和支流,坚持真理,修正错误,发扬经验,吸取教训,在这上基础上把党和人民事业继续推向前进。

  摘自《人民日报》(2013年1月6日)

(1)1980年,邓小平为什么强调天安门上的毛主席像”永远要保留下去”?(5分)
(2)如何理解习近平总书记提出的”两个不能否定”的深刻内涵及其意义?(5分)
参考答案(参见严真老师押题第五套):
(1)毛泽东同志是伟大的马克思主义者,是伟大的无产阶级革命家、战略家和理论家。他虽然在“文化大革命中犯了严重错误,但是就他的一生来看,他对中国革命的功绩远远大于他的过失。他的功绩是第一位的,错误是第二位的。他为中国共产党和中国人民解放军的创立和发展,为中国各族人民解放事业的胜利,为中华人民共和国的缔造和中国社会主义事业的发展,建立了永远不可磨灭的功勋。因此,天安门上的毛主席像”永远要保留下去”。
(2)我们党领导人民进行社会主义建设有改革开放前和改革开放后两个历史时期,这是两个相互联系又有重大区别的时期,但本质上都是我们党领导人民进行社会主义建设的实践探索。中国特色社会主义是在改革开放历史新时期开创的,但也是在新中国已经建立起社会主义基本制度、并进行了20多年建设的基础上开创的。虽然这两个历史时期在进行社会主义建设的思想指导、方针政策、实际工作上有很大差别,但两者决不是彼此割裂的,更不是根本对立的。不能用改革开放后的历史时期否定改革开放前的历史时期,也不能用改革开放前的历史时期否定改革开放后的历史时期。要坚持实事求是的思想路线,分清主流和支流,坚持真理,修正错误,发扬经验,吸取教训,在这个基础上把党和人民事业继续推向前进。

 

37. 结合材料回答问题:
鹦哥岭是海南省陆地面积最大的自然保护区,区内分布着完整的垂直带谱。在我国热带雨林生态系统保存上独占鳌头。这里山高路远,条件艰苦,一直难以招聘到具有较高专业素质的工作人员。
一、鹦哥岭来了大学生
自2007年起,先后有27名大学毕业生(2名博士、4名硕士、21名本科生)放弃大城市的优越生活,陆续从全国各地来到鹦哥岭保护区工作,山脚下一排破旧平房中的两间就是他们的家。”孩子们,这里的黎苗兄弟说是以种田为生,实际上就是种些橡胶,靠山吃山……你们来任务重啊!在关爱森林的同时,还要想法帮这里的百姓致富!”老站长的一席话,像重锤一样敲击着大家。”我们不会让鹦哥岭失望着的!”大家不约而同地喊出声。
二、鹦哥岭有了”档案馆”
到底鹦哥岭有多少种动植物?这是摆在大学生们面前最直接的课题、也是鹦哥岭自然保护区要完成的首要工作。大学生们背着睡袋。锅碗瓢盆和监测仪上山了,他们聚精会神地做着记录,天黑了,架起锅巴煮成米饭,和着辣酱吃了实在太困了支起帐蓬钻进去睡一觉……经过4年多的艰辛努力,鹦哥岭自然保护区终于有了自己的”档案馆”;记录到城管来植物2197种、脊椎动物431种、鹦哥岭树蛙等14种科学新种以及26个中国新记录种等。
三、鹦哥岭有了护林员
鹦哥岭周边有103个自然村,近2万村民。看到村民大片砍代雨林种山芝、香蕉、作为环境保护者,大学生们痛心疾首。但习惯靠山吃山的当地百姓说。”让我们放下砍刀、放下猎枪绝对不行!”大学生们克服阻力,用真诚和智慧动员招募了270名护林员,并与他们一起,用一个多月时间,走遍了209公里长的界线,埋下了近400根桩和50多块界碑,为鹦哥岭保护区筑起了一道看得见的保护网。
四、鹦哥岭有了农业示范田
鹦哥岭是海南的贫困山区,为帮助当地黎苗族百姓脱贫致富,大学生们特地去外地取经,在鹦哥岭通过试点而大面积推广”稻鸭共育”的方法,带动当地人致富,农户们在稻田里骄傲地插上了”农业示范田”的牌子。接着大学生们又推广林下经济,在橡胶树下种菜、种瓜、养鸡;并帮助当地人建起了环保厕所,发行了猪圈,改善了居住的环境%当地百姓手里有了钱,靠上山砍树卖钱的人越来越少了。看到这一切,大学生们说,”我们感到由衷的幸福和快乐,也深切地感受到,这就是我们工作的意义和存在的价值。”
5年过去了,27名大学生一直坚守在鹦哥岭,他们甘于寂寞,乐于奉献仪式发现新物种,是敬业的科研工作者;引来环保理念,是先进理念的传播者;心系百姓喜忧,是黎苗族兄弟的贴心人!一份职业,背负三份责任。三个角色的完美融合,让我们看到了甘于寂寞的坚守力量和不甘于寂寞的奋斗精神,也让我们懂得了自已手中的笔、脚下的路、心中的秤要靠什么来指引,他们选择了一种有远见的生活方式。
每到毕业季,总有一些大学生毕业生发出”理想很丰满,现实很骨感”的感慨。究竟如何看待理想与现实的关系,鹦哥岭的大学生们用他们的实际行动给出了最响亮的回答。

摘编自《光明日报》(2012年4月9日、2013年6月7日)

(1)为什么说鹦哥岭的大学生选择的是”一种有远见的生活方式”?(6分)
(2)怎样看待”理想很丰满,现实很骨感”这种说法?
参考答案(参见严真老师押题第一套):
(1)个人理想只有同国家的前途、民族的命运相结合、同社会的需要和人民的利益相一致,才是有意义的。社会理想是个人理想的凝聚和升华,代表和反映着人们的共同愿望和根本利益,归根到底要靠全体社会成员的共同努力来实现,并具体体现在每个社会成员为实现个人理想而进行的活生生的实践中。因此,鹦哥岭的大学生选择的是”一种有远见的生活方式”。
(2)首先,我们正确认识理想和现实的对立统一关系。理想受现实的规定和制约。在一定的条件下,理想也可以转化成为未来的现实。其次,我们要有坚定的信念,不要因为遇到挫折就放弃理想。第三,勇于实践、艰苦奋斗是实现理想的根本途径。因此, “理想很丰满,现实很骨感”只看到理想与现实的对立,没有看到二者之间的统一,是片面的。

 

38. 结合材料回答问题:
材料1
航海家哥伦布完成了他的前无古人的探险活动后、向支持他探险的西班牙国王和王后汇报他的发现时说:”地球是圆的。”他因为这一伟大的发现而名垂后世。但是,时隔500多年后,美国《纽约时报》中东事务专栏作家、普利策奖获得者托马斯·弗里德曼沿着哥伦布的航程,从美国乘飞机出发,经由法兰克福一直向东飞行,来到了印度的”硅谷”——班加罗尔,经过一段时间的观察,他有一一个破天荒的发现。他回到美国后,悄悄地对他的太太说了一句话:”亲爱的,我发现这个世界是平的。”
“世界是平的”,并不是说地球已改变了它的物理形态,但这个论点的提出却有着划时代的意义。它揭示出当今世界正在发生的深刻而又令人激动的的一个变化——全球化的趋势。它以高科技发展为动力,在地球各处勇往直前、势不可挡,世界也因此从一个球体变得平坦。
“世界是平的”,意味着在今天这样一个因信息技术而紧密、方便的互联世界中,全球市场、劳动力和产品都可以被整个世界共享,一切都有可能以最有效率和最低成本的方式实现。
“世界是平的”,改变着每一个人的工作方式、生活方式和思想方式,乃至一个人的生存方式。因此,生活在当今时代的每一个人,都面临着平坦的世界这样巨大的变化,我们将如何自处?看来,在这个世界里,要想脱疑而出,最重要的一点是不断强化自己的竞争力,首先要培养”学习如何学习”的能力——不断学习和教会自己处理旧事物和新事物的新方式。

摘编自《人民日报》(2007年7月26日)、《人民日报》(海外版)(2012年11月1日)

材料2
弗里德曼在《世界是平的》一书中,以丰富生动的语言描述了全球化带来的挑战和益处。其中一段话颇令人回味:”小时候父母常常说,儿子阿,乖乖把饭吃完,因为中国和印度的小孩没饭吃。现在,父母会对孩子说,女儿啊,乖乖把书念完,因为中国和印度的小孩正在等着抢你的饭碗。”

摘编自《美》托马斯·弗里德曼《世界是平的》

(1)在”世界变平”的时代,为什么每个人”要培养 ‘学习如何学习’的能力”?
(2)从”抢饭”到”抢饭碗”的变化说明了什么?
参考答案(参见严真老师黄金答题模板):
(1)世界是平的,表明经济全球化已是不可逆转的趋势。经济全球化虽然给我们带来了很多便利,但它是一把“双刃剑”,我们在面临巨大机遇的同时也面临着前所未有的挑战。为了应对把握机遇和应对挑战,我们每个人”要培养 ‘学习如何学习’的能力”。

2)从抢饭抢饭碗的变化表明了经济全球化已经让世界各国的距离无限拉近,同时网络和信息技术的发展,也让世界的发展突飞猛进。在经济全球化的过程中,任何国家特别是发展中国家要面对经济方面的挑战,我们面对现实的挑战,同时着力建立平等互惠共赢共存的经济全球化,让每个国家都能从经济全球化的浪潮中获益。

2014考研数学试题及参考答案

本解析由NBF考研包过班数学名师张松美提供,其中半括数一、数二、数三试题及答案。

 2014考研数学一试题完整版.pdf 
 2014考研数学(一)参考答案与详细解析.pdf 
2014考研数学二试题完整版.pdf 
2014考研数学(二)参考答案与详细解析.pdf 
2014考研数学三试题完整版.pdf 
2014考研数学(三)参考答案与详细解析.pdf 

本站内容参考至: NBF考研

2014考研英语(二)试题与参考答案

Section I Use ofEnglish

Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the bestword(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10points)
Thinner isn’t always better. A numberof studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk ofsome diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are healthconditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavierwomen are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of goodhealth.
Of even greater ___5___ is the fact thatobesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height.An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight.Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity,___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severelyobese.
While such numerical standards seem?9,?they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat.Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit,?10?others with alow BMI may be in poor?11?.For example, many collegiate and professionalfootball players?12?as obese, though their percentage body fat is low.Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a?13?BMI.
Today we have a(an) _14 _ to labelobesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with theirfaces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of willpower,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and healthprofessionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_veryyoung children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about bodybuild has long been a problem in schools.

1 [A]denied [B]conduced [C]doubled [D]ensured
2 [A]protective [B]dangerous [C]sufficient [D]troublesome
3 [A]Instead [B]However [C]Likewise [D]Therefore
4 [A]indicator [B]objective [C]origin [D]example
5 [A]impact [B]relevance [C]assistance [D]concern
6 [A]intermsof [B]incaseof [C]infavorof [D]inof
7 [A]measures [B]determines [C]equals [D]modifies
8 [A]inessence [B]incontrast [C]inturn [D]inpart
9 [A]complicated [B]conservative [C]variable [D]straightforward
10 [A]so [B]unlike [C]since [D]unless
11 [A]shape [B]spirit [C]balance [D]taste
12 [A]start [B]quality [C]retire [D]stay
13 [A]strange [B]changeable [C]normal [D]constant
14 [A]option [B]reason [C]opportunity [D]tendency
15 [A]employed [B]pictured [C]imitated [D]monitored
16 [A] [B]combined [C]settled [D]associated
17 [A]Even [B]Still [C]Yet [D]Only
18 [A]despised [B]corrected [C]ignored [D]grounded
19 [A]discussions [B]businesses [C]policies [D]studies
20 [A]for [B]against [C]with [D]without

Section II ReadingComprehension

Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answerthe questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers onANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for GloriaMackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofedhouse in Floridato collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes hernew-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could doworse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.
These two academics use an array ofbehavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can becounterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy carsand extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears offfairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creepsin. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton,like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. Thesepurchases often become more valuable with time-as stories ormemories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
This slim volume is packed with tips tohelp wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bangfor your buck.” It seems most people would be better off if they couldshorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family andless of it watching television (something the average American spends awhopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts orgiving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself,and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This isapparently the reason MacDonald’s restricts the availability of its popularMcRib – a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object ofobsession.
Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Moneymay not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generallyhappier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spendingmoney on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, andscarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyonewill agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which rangefrom mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for Americanhomebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it wasmoney well spent。
21.According to Dumn and Norton,which ofthe following is the most rewarding purchase?
[A]A big house
[B]A special tour
[C]A stylish car
[D]A rich meal
22.The author’s attitude towardAmericans’ watching TV is
[A]critical
[B]supportive
[C]sympathetic
[D]ambiguous
23.Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 toshow that
[A]consumers are sometimes irrational
[B]popularity usually comes afterquality
[C]marketing tricks are after effective
[D]rarity generally increases pleasure
24.According to the last paragraph,HappyMoney
[A]has left much room for readers’criticism
[B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
[C]has predicted a wider income gap inthe us
[D]may give its readers a sense ofachievement
25.This text mainly discusses how to
[A]balance feeling good and spendingmoney
[B]spend large sums of money won inlotteries
[C]obtain lasting satisfaction frommoney spent
[D]become more reasonable in spending onluxuries

Text 2

An article in Scientific America haspointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful thanyou are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and wenaturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into whatthe call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as aboveaverage in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.
We rose tint our memories and putourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized,and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalkaround thinking we’re hot stuff.
Psychologist and behavioral scientistNicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness.Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he askedthem to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup includingversions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visualrecognition, reads the study, is “an automaticpsychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or noapparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjectsquickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinelybelieved it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant genderdifference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those whoself-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the mostpositively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profoundinsecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up theattractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showedother makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence ofpersonal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generallythinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, youwon’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs ofthemselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t evenrecognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is aself-enhancer’s paradise,where people can share onlythe most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellectand lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray anidealized version of themselves.
26. According to the first paragraph,social psychologist have found that ______.
[A] our self-ratings are unrealisticallyhigh
[B] illusory superiority is baselesseffect
[C] our need for leadership is unnatural
[D] self-enhancing strategies areineffective
27. Visual recognition is believed to bepeople’s______
[A] rapid watching
[B] conscious choice
[C] intuitive response
[D] automatic self-defence
28. Epley found that people with higherself-esteem tended to______
[A] underestimate their insecurities
[B] believe in their attractiveness
[C] cover up their depressions
[D] oversimplify their illusions
29.The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.
[A]instinctively
[B]occasionally
[C]particularly
[D]aggressively
30. It can be inferred that Facebook isself-enhancer’sparadise because people can _____.
[A]present their dishonest profiles
[B]define their traditional life styles
[C]share their intellectual pursuits
[D]withhold their unflattering sides

Text3

Crying is hardly an activity encouraged by society .Tears, be they of sorrow, anger, on joy, typically make Americans feel uncomforuble and embarrassed. The shedder of tears is likely to apologize, even when a devastating (毁灭性的) tragedy was the provocation. The observer of tears is likely to do everything possible to put an end to the emotional outpouring. But judging from recent studies of crying behavior, links between illness and chemical composition of tears, both those response to tears are often inappropriate and may even be counterproductive.
Humans are the only animals definitely known to shed emotional tears. Since evolution has given rise to few, if any, purposeless physiological responset, it is logical to assume that crying has one or more functions that enhance survival.
Although some observers have suggested that crying is a way to clicit assistance form others (as a frying baby might from its mother), the shedding of tears id hardly necessary to get help, Vocal cnes would have been quite enough, more likely than tears is hardly necessary to gain attention, So, it appears, there must be something special about tears themselves.
Indeed, the new studies suggest that emotional tears may play a direct role in alleviating stress, University of Minnesota researchers who are studying the chemical composition of tears have recently isolated two important chemicals from emotional tears. Both chemicals are found only in tears that are shed in response to emotion. Tears shed because of exposure to cut onion would contain no such substance.
Researchers at several other institutions are investigating the usefulness of tears as a means of diagnosing human ills and monitoring drugs.
At Tulane University’s Teat Analysis Laboratory Dr.Peter Kastl and his colleagues report that they can use tears to detect drug abuse and exposure to medication (药物), to determine whether a contact lens fits properly of why I may be uncomfortable, to study the causes of “dry eye” syndrome and the effects eye surgery, and perhaps even to measure exposure to environmental pollutants.
At Columbia University DT.Liasy Faris and colleagues are studying tears for clues to the diagnosis of diseases away from the eyes. Tears can be obtained painlessly without invading the body and only tiny amounts are needed to perform highly refined analyses.
31. It known from the first paragraph that__________
A) shedding teats gives unpleasant feelings to American
B) crying may often imitate people or even result in tragedy
C) crying usually wins sympathy from other people
D) one who sheds ears in public will be blamed

32. What does “both those responses to tears”(Line 6, Para, 1) refer to?
A) Crying out of sorrow and shedding tears for happiness.
B) The embarrassment and unpleasant sensation of the observers.
C) The tear shedder’s apology and the observer’s effort to stop the crying.
D) Linking illness with crying and finding the chemical composition of tears.

33. “Counterproductive” (Line 6-7, Para, 1) very probably means “________”.
A) having no effect at all
B) leading to tension
C) producing disastrous impact
D) harmful to health

34. What does the author say about crying?
A) It is a pointless physiological response to the environment.
B) It must have a role to play in man’s survival.
C) It is meant to get attention and assistance.
D) It usually produces the desired effect.

35. What can be inferred from the mew studies of tears?
A) Emotional tears have the function of reducing stress.
B) Exposure to excessive medication may increase emotional tears.
C) Emotional tears can give rise to “dry eye” syndrome in some cases.
D) Environmental pollutants can induce the shedding of emotional teats.

Text 4

When the government talks about infrastructurecontributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadbandand energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.
Why is that? To some extent the housingsector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the realvalue that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scaleof the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention amongmultibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that theattention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is thatthe issue has always been so politically charged.
Nevertheless, the affordable housingsituation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simplynot building enough new homes.
The comprehensive spending review offersan opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to puthistorical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgenthousing need.
There are some indications that it ispreparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hintedthat George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce moreflexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrowagainst their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homescould be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDPby 0.6%.
Ministers should also look at creatinggreater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significantimpact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments fromrevenues.
But it is not just down to thegovernment. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we mustface up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund newaffordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyondthen. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large partof the coalition’sspending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that weare very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We needto adjust to this changing climate.
36. The author believes that the housingsector__
[A] has attracted much attention
[B] involves certain political factors
[C] shoulders too much responsibility
[D] has lost its real value in economy
37. It can be learned that affordablehousing has__
[A] increased its home supply
[B] offered spending opportunities
[C] suffered government biases
[D] disappointed the government
38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osbornemay_______.
[A] allow greater government debt forhousing
[B] stop local authorities from buildinghomes
[C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt
[D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast
39.It can be inferred that a stablerental environment would_______.
[A]lower the costs of registeredproviders
[B]lessen the impact of governmentinterference
[C]contribute to funding newdevelopments
[D]relieve the ministers ofresponsibilities
40.The author believes that after2015,the government may______.
[A]implement more policies to supporthousing
[B]review the need for large-scalepublic grants
[C]renew the affordable housing grantsprogramme
[D]stop generous funding to the housingsector

 

Section III Translation

Directions:
Translate the following text fromEnglish into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
Most people would define optimism asendlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half fall. But that’s exactlythe kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimists means beingin touch with reality.” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvardprofessor, According to Ben- Shalar,realistic optimists are these who make thebest of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens forthe best.
Ben-Shalar uses three optimisticexercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grantshimself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture canbe a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next isreconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the futureabout what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging thatin the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’tmatter.
NBF考研包过班译文:
许多人会架着一副永远摇摇欲坠的眼镜,说乐观就意味着无穷无尽的快乐。但是,这种快乐的错觉正是心理学家所不推荐的。“健康的乐观者意味着他们不脱离现实,”哈佛大学教授塔尔·本沙哈如是说。本沙哈认为,现实的乐观主义者是善用生活中发生的事的人,而不是认为所有发生的事都有好结果的人。
沙哈运用三种乐观练习法。在做了一次失败的演讲感觉情绪低落时,他会允许自己只做一个凡人。他提醒自己,不是每一场演讲都能得诺贝尔奖,有一些必然会不如另外一些有用。第二种方法是重构,他会通过衡量什么对未来有用,什么没用,去分析那些不太成功的演讲,有失偏颇的课程。最后,是选对视角,这需要人们知道,对于整个人生大局而言,一次演讲真的算不了什么。

Section IV Writing

Part A
47.?Directions:
Suppose you are going to study abroadand share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him to email to 1)tell him about your living habits, and2)ask for advice about living there. You should write about 100 words onanswer sheet. Do not use your own name.
NBF考研包过班范文:
Dear John,
I am Li Ming, an overseas student from Peking University. I am going to study in your university and share an apartment with you. I wonder if you could provide me with some information of the life there.
Here are some details of what I need. First of all, I want to know the general situation about our community. I hope it is close to the university. Secondly, your help will be very valuable if you tell me how to apply for the post of teaching assistance, since I need to do some part-time job. Lastly, I also have some concerns in the aspect of dining. I love Chinese food better.
Thank you very much for your time and kindness. I look forward to your reply at your earliest convenience.

Yours sincerely,Li Ming

Part B
48. Directions:
Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15points) You should 1. interpret the chart, and 2. give your comments. You should write about 150 words on theANSWER SHEET. (15points)

NBF考研包过班范文:
According to the statistics shown by the column chart above, we can see the changes of Chinese population in the urban and rural areas respectively in the last twenty years. The population of city residents increased sharply from 300 million in 1990 to over 650 million in 2010 while the figure for the countryside dropped steadily from over 800 million to less than 700 million in the same period.
From this chart, we can clearly see the rapid process of urbanization in China. There are at least two reasons for this phenomenon. On the one hand, the development of cities befitted a lot from the favorable polices related and the advanced technologies. On the other hand, the countryside suffered greatly from the loss of human resources, low prices of agricultural products and constant natural disasters.
In my opinion, this phenomenon reflected by this chart should be addressed with due emphasis. Further analysis should be made on it and proper measures should be taken. Only in this way can we enjoy more advantages brought by urbanization and avoid the disadvantages thereof.

网页版的看的不爽?可以尝试一下下载PDF版本的哦….  本文参考至:NBF考研

2014考研英语(一)试题与参考答案

Section I Use of English

Directions:
Read the followingtext. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D onthe ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
As many people hitmiddle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity arenot what they used to be. We suddenly can’t remember___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance’s name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain___2___, we refer to these occurrences as “senior moments.” ___3___seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n)___4___ impact on our professional, social, and personal ___5___.
Neuroscientists,experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’s actually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brainneeds exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental___7___ can significantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking isessentially a ___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent,our ability to ___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence isinherited. ___11___, because these connections are made through effort andpractice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate___12___ mental effort.
Now, a new Web-basedcompany has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first “braintraining program” designed to actually help people improve and regaintheir mental ___14___.
The Web-based program___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. Theprogram keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailed feedback ___17___your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it ___18___modifies andenhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengths you are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you to increaseresistance and vary your muscle use.

1 [A]where [B]when [C]that [D]why
2 [A]improves [B]fades [C]recovers [D]collapses
3 [A]If [B]Unless [C]Once [D]While
4 [A]uneven [B]limited [C]damaging [D]obscure
5 [A]wellbeing [B]environment [C]relationship [D]outlook
6 [A]turns [B]finds [C]points [D]figures
7 [A]roundabouts [B]responses [C]workouts [D]associations
8 [A]genre [B]functions [C]circumstances [D]criterion
9 [A]channel [B]condition [C]sequence [D]process
10 [A]persist [B]believe [C]excel [D]feature
11 [A]Therefore [B]Moreover [C]Otherwise [D]However
12 [A]accordingto [B]regardlessof [C]apartfrom [D]insteadof
13 [A]back [B]further [C]aside [D]around
14 [A]sharpness [B]stability [C]framework [D]flexibility
15 [A]forces [B]reminds [C]hurries [D]allows
16 [A]hold [B]track [C]order [D]pace
17 [A]to [B]with [C]for [D]on
18 [A]irregularly [B]habitually [C]constantly [D]unusually
19 [A]carry [B]put [C]build [D]take
20 [A]risky [B]effective [C]idle [D]familiar

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark youranswers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

  In order to”change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency”George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront worksearch” scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV,register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligiblefor benefit and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. Whatcould be more reasonable?
More apparentreasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking forwork, not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people stay offbenefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.” Help? Really?On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to changelives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviouslyindulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed tofind work, and subsidises laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand,was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”—protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the mostdeserving claimants received their benefits.
Losing a job ishurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with asong in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from thegenerous state. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing andyou know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are nownot wanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are nownot wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purposeand structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and yourfamily and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what theywant and the answer is always: a job.
But in Osborneland,your first instinct is to fall into dependency —permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by astate only too ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years ofever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system neverhappened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insureyourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments ifthe disaster happens. Even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” — invented in 1996 — is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” whohad no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through makingnational insurance contributions. Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited”allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlementand no insurance, at £71.70 aweek, one of the least generous in the EU.
21. George Osborne’s scheme was intended to
[A]provide theunemployed with easier access to benefits.
[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.
[C]motivate theunemployed to report voluntarily.
[D]guaranteejobseekers’legitimate right to benefits.
22. The phrase, “to signon” (Line 3, Para. 2) most probably means
[A]to check on theavailability of jobs at the jobcentre.
[B]to accept thegovernment’s restrictions on the allowance.
 [C]to register for anallowance from the government.
[D]to attend agovernmental job-training program.
23. What prompted thechancellor to develop his scheme?
[A]A desire to secure abetter life for all.
[B]An eagerness toprotect the unemployed.
[C]An urge to begenerous to the claimants.
  [D]A passion to ensurefairness for taxpayers.
24. According to Paragraph 3,being unemployed makes one feel
 [A]uneasy
[B]enraged.
[C]insulted.
[D]guilty.
25. To which of the followingwould the author most probably agree?
[A]The British welfaresystem indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
 [D]Unemploymentbenefits should not be made conditional.

Text 2

  All around the world,lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few placeswhere clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
During the decadebefore the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grewtwice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money,tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduatesnever get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind ofnuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.
There are many reasonsfor this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just onepath for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree insome unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schoolsauthorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for thebar exam. This leaves today’s average law-schoolgraduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debtmeans that many cannot afford to go into government or non-profit work, andthat they have to work fearsomely hard.
Reforming the systemwould help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been aroundfor a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession havebeen too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to studylaw as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the barafter only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enoughtest for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to doso. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountainby a third.
The other reason whycosts are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of thebusiness. Except in the District of — Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a lawfirm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for changefrom within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insistthat keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure tomake money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact, allowingnon-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve servicesto customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employprofessional managers to focus on improving firms’efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australiaand Britain,have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.
26.a lot of students take uplaw as their profession due to
[A]the growing demandfrom clients.
[B]the increasingpressure of inflation.
[C]the prospect ofworking in big firms.
  [D]the attraction offinancial rewards.
27.Which of the following addsto the costs of legal education in most American states?
[A]Higher tuition feesfor undergraduate studies.
[B]Admissions approvalfrom the bar association.
[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
[D]Receiving trainingby professional associations.
28.Hindrance to the reform ofthe legal system originates from
[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.
[B]the rigid bodiesgoverning the profession.
[C]the stem exam forwould-be lawyers.
[D]non-professionals’sharp criticism.
29.The guild-like ownershipstructure is considered “restrictive”partly because it
[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.
[B]keeps lawyers fromholding law-firm shares.
[C]aggravates theethical situation in the trade.
[D]prevents lawyers fromgaining due profits.
30.In this text, the authormainly discusses
[A]flawed ownership ofAmerica’s law firms and its causes.
[B]the factors thathelp make a successful lawyer in America.
[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
[D]the role ofundergraduate studies in America’s legal education.

Text 3

  The US$3-millionFundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as AlexanderPolyakov said when he accepted this year’s award inMarch. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature articlein Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joinedthe Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, arefunded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs.These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and theywant to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded inscience.
What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientistsquoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, andthese upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels,The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, sayscientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-ledresearch. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They donot fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius.
The goals of theprize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism. Some want to shock, others todraw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careersin research.
As Nature has pointedout before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. TheBreakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes anunrepresentative view of what the life sciences include. But the NobelFoundation’s limit of three recipients per prize, eachof whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborativenature of modern research—as will be demonstrated bythe inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging thediscovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course, themselves set up bya very rich individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money.Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy.
As much as somescientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First,most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, itis surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather thango elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—butit is the prize-givers’ money to do with as theyplease. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace.
31. The Fundamental PhysicsPrize is seen as
[A]a symbol of theentrepreneurs’ wealth.
[B]a possiblereplacement of the Nobel Prizes.
[C]an example ofbankers’ investments.
[D]a handsome rewardfor researchers.
32. The critics think that thenew awards will most benefit
[A]the profit-orientedscientists.
[B]the founders of thenew awards.
[C]theachievement-based system.
[D]peer-review-ledresearch.
33. The discovery of the Higgsboson is a typical case which involves
[A]controversies overthe recipients’ status.
[B]the joint effort ofmodern researchers.
[C]legitimate concernsover the new prizes.
[D]the demonstration ofresearch findings.
34. According to Paragraph4,which of the following is true of the Nobels?
[A]Their endurance hasdone justice to them.
[B]Their legitimacy haslong been in dispute.
[C]They are the mostrepresentative honor.
[D]History has nevercast doubt on them.
35.The author believes that thenow awards are
 [A]acceptable despitethe criticism.
[B]harmful to theculture of research.
[C]subject toundesirable changes.
[D]unworthy of publicattention.

Text 4

  ”The Heart of theMatter,” the just-released report by the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS),deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciencesto the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, thereport’s failure to address the true nature of thecrisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good.
In 2010, leadingcongressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that itidentify actions that could be taken by “federal, state and localgovernments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors andothers” to “maintain national excellence in humanities and socialscientific scholarship and education.” In response, the American Academyformed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among thecommission’s 51 members are top-tier-universitypresidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well asprominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism.
The goals identified inthe report are generally admirable. Because representative governmentpresupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stressesthe study of history and government, particularly American history and Americangovernment; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourageinnovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment inresearch, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students’ ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21stcentury, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars tobring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The reportalso advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs andthe expansion of study abroad programs.
Unfortunately, despite2½ years in the making, “The Heart of theMatter” never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature ofliberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The commissionignores that for several decades America’s colleges and universities haveproduced graduates who don’t know the content andcharacter of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly,the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use ofthe humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing”progressive,” or left-liberal propaganda.
Today, professorsroutinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressivepublic policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative orclassical liberal ideas—such as free markets andself-reliance—as falling outside the boundaries ofroutine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.
The AAAS displays greatenthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform byobscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it toilluminate.
36. According to Paragraph 1,what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?
[A] Critical
[B] Appreciative
[C] Contemptuous
[D] Tolerant
37. Influential figures in theCongress required that the AAAS report on how to
[A] retain people’s interest in liberal education
[B] define thegovernment’s role in education
 [C] keep a leadingposition in liberal education
[D] safeguardindividuals’ rights to education
38. According to Paragraph 3,the report suggests
[A] an exclusive studyof American history
[B] a greater emphasison theoretical subjects
[C] the application ofemerging technologies
[D] funding for thestudy of foreign languages
39. The author implies inParagraph 5 that professors are
[A] supportive of freemarkets
[B] cautious aboutintellectual investigation
[C] conservative aboutpublic policy
[D] biased againstclassical liberal ideas
40. Which of the followingwould be the best title for the text?
[A] Ways to Grasp”The Heart of the Matter”
[B] Illiberal Educationand “The Heart of the Matter”
[C] The AAAS’s Contribution to Liberal Education
[D] Progressive Policyvs. Liberal Education
Part B
Directions:
The following paragraphs aregiven in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganizethese paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and fillingthem into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placedMark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET (10 points)
[A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, theParthenon in Athens, Greece, the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megalithsof Stonehenge in southern England.But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Most archaeological sites have beenlocated by means of careful searching, while many others have been discoveredby accident. Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterflyhunter who literally fell into its deep valley in 1911. Thousands of Aztecartifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.
[B]In another case, American archaeologists Rene Million andGeorge Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the Valleyof Mexico near what is now Mexico City. At its peakaround AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world.The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but alsohundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.
[C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are lookingfor when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, theysurvey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain todetermine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test sampleshave also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that containarchaeological sites.
[D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entirelandscapes. In one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya cityof Copan, Honduras, have located hundreds ofsmall rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs andby making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how thedistribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramaticallybetween AD 500 and 850, when Copancollapsed.
[E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily onsystematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools andtechniques. Airborne technologies, such as different types of radar andphotographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologiststo learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveyslocate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancientbuildings or fields.
[F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered byarchaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years.British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaohTutankhamun existed from information found in other sites. Carter siftedthrough rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before he located thetomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evan combedantique dealers’ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for tiny engraved sealsattributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the1400s to 1200s BC. Evans’s interpretations of theseengravings eventually led him to find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knossós) on the island of Crete, in 1900.
[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the placeswhere digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking,looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They ofteninclude a certain amount of digging to test for buried materials at selectedpoints across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains byusing such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metaldetectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and thelandscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools inplanning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the resultsof archaeological research.
41. → A →42. → E →43. → 44. →45.
  C → A → F → E → G → D → B
Part C
Directions:
Read the following textcarefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Yourtranslation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Music means differentthings to different people and sometimes even different things to the sameperson at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical,sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have somethingto do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the meansof expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it isprecisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physicalmeans that is the strength of music. (46)It is also the reason why when wetry to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions toit, and not grasp music itself.
Beethoven’s importance in music has been principally defined by therevolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hithertoprevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his lateworks a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt andseemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, hedid not feel restrained by the weight of convention. (47)By all accounts hewas a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage anessential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of hisworks.
This courageousattitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, forexample in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an intense crescendo and thenabruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used bycomposers before him.
Beethoven was a deeplypolitical man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in dailypolitics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the largerquestions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especially significantwas his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights andresponsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and ofpersonal expression.
Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperativeof human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoringthe disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, animprovement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is notby chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the EroicaSymphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. (50)Onecould interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering isinevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
译文:
(46)也正是因为如此,当我们试图用言语描述音乐的时候,我们所能做的,只是去说明我们对于音乐的反应,而非去把握音乐本身。
(47)无论如何,他是一个自由思考的人,一个充满勇气的人。并且,我认为,要理解贝多芬音乐,勇气是必不可少的,更不要提演绎其音乐。
(48)贝多芬习惯用密集的、渐强的音符增加音量,继而突然接续一段轻柔的乐章,这种手法此前的作曲家几乎没有用过。
(49)尤为重要的是他对自由的看法,自由于他而言,与个人权责息息相关,因此,他一直倡导自由的思考,自由的个人表达。
(50)也许人们会这样去理解贝多芬作品,认为痛苦是必不可少的,但实际上,只有具有与痛苦抗争的勇气,才会拥有值得一过的人生。

Section Ⅲ Writing

Part A
51. Directions:
Write a letter of about 100 words to the president ofyour university, suggesting how to improve students’physical condition.
You should include the details you think necessary.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use”Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)

<>NBF优秀范文:
Dear Mr. President,
I am a student from the department of chemistry. I find it is necessary to improve students’ physical conditions and I would like to propose some suggestions it in this letter.
Following are my suggestions on it. Firstly, the awareness of this issue should be enhanced, which is of utmost importance. Nowadays, intellectual abilities are greatly emphasized while the physical training has been more or less neglected. Secondly, I suggest that some specific measures should be taken, such as doing morning exercise every day and encouraging students to participate in the sports events on the campus, to improve the situation. Last and not least, an optimistic attitude should be held towards it. Confidence will help us deal with this situation.
I hope you will find these suggestions useful. I have good reasons to expect a bright future if we address this issue with due emphasis.

?Yours sincerely,
Li Ming

Part B
52. Directions:  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the followingdrawing. In your essay, you should  1) describe the drawing briefly,  2) interpret its intended meaning, and  3) give your comments.  You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(20 points)

考研

左图的文字:三十年前
右图的文字:现在
图底的文字:相携

NBF优秀范文:
The pictures above vividly portray the scenes of a girl being together with her mother. The picture on the left side describes the situation thirty years ago when the girl was little and the mother was young. The one on the right side depicts that now the girl has grown up, holding her mother arm in arm. At the bottom of the picture, a line of words read “holding each other in your life”.
The picture above reveals to us such a phenomenon: more and more young people realize how much their parents have devoted to them and try to return the parental love. This phenomenon occurs at least for the following reasons. Firstly, the harmonious atmosphere of the society has left its imprint on one’s family, which is the cell of the society. Children’s consideration of the aged parents is a good example. Secondly, family means a lot for everyone. Therefore, parents tend to think of their children when they make a plan for their life, and vice versa. Thirdly, the traditional Chinese culture has always put great emphasis on family, which partially explains one’s great sense of responsibility to their family members.
In sum, a healthy relationship between children and parents should be maintained. In my opinion, people should take the welfare of family as a whole into consideration as the pictures show. Otherwise, a harmonious relationship among family members cannot be kept and a happy life cannot be guaranteed.

网页版的看的不爽?可以尝试一下下载PDF版本的哦…. ?本文参考至:NBF考研